Photography is the art of making long-lasting images with the help of the light. The image is made either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor. One of the key parts is the lens that is used to focus the light reflected from objects into a real image.
Etymology and history
The name photography has Greek origin; it is created by coinage of the words
· The meaning of the first word is light’, whereas the second word means drawing’. The literal meaning of the words would be drawing of light’. This is very true by its nature since the image comes from the light reflected.
Before the final product of photography to be realized, there have been several technical discoveries.
· The first evidence dates from 5-th and 4-th centuries BC, when Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera. Later, in 1566 a diaphragm was described by Daniele Barbaro. The camera obscura was used by the Renaissance painters. It is basically a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper. So, painting and sculpture were the first forms of photography.
The first photography made by a camera was invented in the 1820s, with capacity to grasp more details and information.
· In 1822. Nicephore Niepce made the first permanent photography. He also made the first image from nature named “View from the Window at le Gras” in 1826/7.
Black-and-white versus color photography
All of the above mentioned photographs were black-and-white. They were cheaper to be produced and had a classic view of a photograph.
The first appearance of a color photograph was taken in 1861. The three basic colours were red, green and blue.
The popular auto chrome was introduced by the Lumiere brother’s in1907.
· The Sony Company unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film in 1981.
Uses of photography
Photography is used for scientific purposes, as well as for artistic. Today, photography is an inevitable part of any science, and furthermore it is used by the military, security and police forces.
Both amateur and commercial use of the photography can be found worldwide.
Companies make huge profits from this trend. Photographs can sell products, can increase the number of clients in any area, can make advertisements etc. In other words, our ordinary life cannot be imagined without the power of photography. There are many forms of photography in commercial terms, and some of them include:
o Fashion use (for making editorials);
o Crime scene photography (cases must include photographs);
o Food photography;
o Landscape photography;
o Wildlife photography;
o Still life photography;
o Portrait photography and many more.
The most famous artistic use of photography is considered to be by National Geographic that makes unique images of people, animals, objects, and everything that can be found in nature. Their gallery numbers thousands of photographs that can be found on their website.
Photography is also used for legal works, such as making personal documents. Many companies use photography for their purposes by electronic way. For example, ESTA – the Electronic System for Travel Authorization uses digital photography in the process of screening passengers when they enter the US.